# K-2 Parent_Guardian Math Resources

### KINDERGARTEN

#### What do Kindergarteners need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?

### Count to 100 by 1’s and 10’s

#### Video: Count by 10’s

Count often! In the car, on walks, around the home. Any time is a good time to practice counting. Practice counting by both ones and tens

### Count to tell how many

#### Video: Count to tell how many

Your child should count objects, saying their name in order and understand that the last number counted represents the total number of objects. Have your child count anything and everything! For example, when counting 3 forks, your child should say “1 – 2 – 3” to count them and recognize that we have a group of 3 forks. ]

### Count to tell how many and to determine which group has more

#### Video: More Bears

Ask your child to count objects around the house. Also have them count separate groups and tell you which has more, less, or if they have an equal number of items. Collect things in nature as you are on a walk (leaves, rocks, sticks). Have your child sort them when you get home and determine which group has the most.

### “Count on” starting at any number

#### Video: Count 5 to 11

Ask your child to start at a certain number and count to another number. For example, “Start at 5 and count to 11.”

**What do Kindergarteners need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?**

### Write the number that matches how many objects

#### Video: How Many Bears

After counting a group of objects, have your child write the number. They can also use a finger to trace a number while saying the number.

### Different ways to make a number

#### VIDEO HERE

While driving, while making dinner or as you are walking through a store, ask your child how they can make a number. An example would be, “How can you make 5?” The student should respond with 3 + 2, 4 + 1, 0 + 5. Make sure you keep asking for more ways until they have found them all.

**What do Kindergarteners need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?**

One popular game with students is to have 10 items and put some of them under your hand or behind your back. Say to your child, “We had ten, I put some behind my back and now we have 4 left. How many are behind my back?”

**Video**

Give your students between 11 and 19 objects (these can include buttons, beans, straws, or anything around the house). Have your child tell you how many “tens” and “ones” are in the group of objects. If your child had 18 beans, they should put 10 in one pile and 8 in another and say “Eighteen has 1 ten and 8 ones.”

### Addition and Subtraction using objects

#### Video: Add Cubes Video: Subtraction with Cubes Image: How Many Apples?

Using a word problem context allows students to develop their understanding of what it means to add and subtract. Kindergarteners use various types of problems from Table 1, talk to your child’s teacher about appropriate problems for your kindergartner. Some examples are:“Mia had 3 apples, her friend gave her 2 more. How many apples does Mia have now?”“Steven had 8 markers. He gave 3 away. How many markers does he have now?”“There are 2 red apples on the counter and 3 green apples on the counter. How many apples are on the counter?”“There are 10 apples on the counter. Some are red and some are green. How many apples could be green? How many apples could be red?” (There are multiple ways that students could answer this question- see the image: How many apples.)

### Addition and Subtraction using numbers and symbols

#### Video

Car math- Driving anywhere is a great opportunity to practice mental math skills. Ask simple questions using numbers under 10. For example, “If I have 6 cookies and I eat 2 of them, how many cookies will I have left?” You can also have your child write the equation that matches the problem if you are at home. For example, in the above situation, they would write 4 = 6 – 2 or 6 – 2 = 4.

### Describe position of objects (below, beside, in front of, behind, next to)

#### Video: Naming Shapes and their Position

Have your child help with setting the table. Give specific instructions on where to place items. “Put the plate in front of the glass.” “Place the spoon next to the knife.” you can also use stuffed animals or action figures and have your child place them in various positions.

#### Video: Naming Shapes and their Position

As you are purchasing groceries or putting items away, have your child identify the shape of the items. When referring to a can of soup ask your child, “What shape is this can?” (cylinder). Shapes should include two-dimensional shapes of squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons. Three-dimensional shapes of cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. Understanding these shapes and positional thinking helps students develop important skills that contribute to their spatial thinking.

### FIRST GRADE

**What do First Graders need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?**

**Solve word problems**

#### Video:15 – 8

#### Video:15 – 9

Make up adding and subtracting stories with numbers less than 20. For example: “If I have 13 cookies and I eat 4 of them, how many cookies will I have left?” or “Mary had 8 apples and her friend gave her 5 more apples. How many apples does Mary have now?”.

### Add and subtract using strategies for numbers up to 100

#### Video:39 + 12

#### Video:6 + 7 + 4

Add and subtract the price of two or more items at a store (whole numbers only). Ask your child to show you all the strategies they know to add and subtract numbers. They may use drawings, objects or strategies as shown in the videos..

### Fluently add and subtract within 10

#### Video:

It is important to know that children in 1st grade are not expected to be fluent (flexible, accurate and efficient) with all their 10 facts until the end of first grade. Much of the year will be devoted to understanding how numbers can be broken apart and put back together. Your child will also utilize different strategies to add and subtract over the course of the school year. One useful strategy is using doubles, this is not only knowing their double facts but also knowing 4 + 3 is the same as 3 + 3 +1. Ask your child about other strategies they are using in class. While driving in the car, ask your child to mentally add or subtract two numbers such as “How much is 6 + 4? or 10 – 3?” The use of strategies will assist your child in mentally solving these types of problems. Practice with all numbers within 10.

### Understand the equal sign

#### Video: Understanding equality

Write this equation, 5 + 7 = 6 + 6 and ask your child if it is true . Then ask them how they know it is true. Practice this with different numbers..

**What do First Graders need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?**

### Count to 120, starting at any number

#### Video:

Practice counting with your child while doing various activities-driving in the car, waiting in line at a store, etc.. Start at various numbers, don’t always start at 1.

### Understand a 2-digit number is composed of tens and ones

#### Video:How Many Tens and Ones

Your child should practice counting objects by grouping them into 10’s and 1’s to find the total count for the items. Counting to make sure all the cards are in a deck (52) is a great way to show how to group them in five groups of ten and two more.

### Compare two-digit numbers

#### Video:Compare 51 and 39

Divide a deck of cards (face cards removed) evenly between two players. Each player flips over two cards to make one number (a 3 and a 5 would make 35), the player with the greatest number wins the cards.

**What do First Graders need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?**

### Equally divide circles and rectangles (into 2 and 4 equal shares)

#### Video: Equally Dividing Shapes

You can practice this skill by showing your child how to cut a sandwich, a cake, or a pan of brownies into 2 equal pieces or 4 equal pieces.

### MEASUREMENT

### Video: Order objects by length

#### Video: Order object by length

Have your child line up several household objects (pen, marker, fork, paper clip) and compare the lengths to see which one is the longest and which one is the shortest.

### Tell and write time in hours and half-hours (into 2 and 4 equal shares)

#### Video: Telling Time

To practice, move the hands on a clock to various hour and half-hour times.

### SECOND GRADE

**What do Second Graders need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?**

**Solve Word Problems**

#### Video: 63 – 37

All of these problems involve adding and subtracting numbers up to 100. Make up adding and subtracting stories for numbers less than 100. For example: “Sara wanted a total of 60 balloons for her party. She already had 42 balloons, how many more will she need to get to have 60?”

### Fluently add and subtract within 20

#### Video:

[It is important to know that children in 2nd grade are not expected to be fluent (flexible, accurate and efficient) with all their 20 facts until the end of second grade. Much of the year will be devoted to understanding how numbers can be broken apart and put back together. Your child will also utilize different strategies to add and subtract over the course of the school year. One useful strategy is using doubles; this is not only knowing their double facts but also knowing 7 + 6 is the same as 6 + 6 +1. Ask your child about other strategies they are using in class. While driving in the car, ask your child to mentally add or subtract two numbers such as “How much is 16 + 3? or 17 – 4?” The use of strategies will assist your child in mentally solving these types of problems. Practice with all numbers within 20.

### Add and subtract using strategies for numbers up to 1000

#### Video: 473 + 227

Your child may use their place value understanding of 100’s,10’s and 1’s to add and subtract larger numbers. Your child may use various strategies to arrive at their answer, ask them to explain why they are using any strategy.

**What do Second Graders need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?**

### Understand a 3-digit number is composed of hundreds, tens and ones

#### Video: How Many Hundreds?

Point to any number within a 3-digit number and ask your child to tell you the value of that number using hundreds, tens, or ones. Your child will learn that 160 can be 1 hundred and 6 tens, 16 tens or 160 ones.

### Skip count by 5’s, 10’s and 100’s

#### Video: Counting on By Tens

Practice counting by 5’s and 10’s past 100 as well as Counting by 100 from any number. Prompt your child by saying things such as: “Can you start at 41 and count by 10’s?” or “ Starting at 182, can you count by 100’s?”

### Read, write, and compare numbers

#### Video:

Your child may use number lines, models, or what they have learned about hundreds, tens and ones to help them compare.

**What do Second Graders need to know? • What does this look/sound like? • How can I support my child at home?**

### Equally divide circles and rectangles (into 2,3, and 4 equal shares)

#### Video: Divide into Fourths

You can practice this skill by showing your child how to cut a sandwich, a pie, a pizza, or a pan of brownies into 2, 3, or 4 equal pieces. .

### Recognize and draw shapes

#### Video: Identifying Triangles

Shapes may include 3, 4, 5, or 6 sided shapes. Students should be able to identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.

### Measure the length of an object

#### Video: Measure an object

Video: Choosing a tool to measure

Your child will use rulers, yard sticks, meter sticks, and tapes measures to measure the length of objects in both metric and U.S. Customary units. Measure anything and everything around the home! Make sure to talk to your child about why they chose that measurement tool (for example why a yardstick instead of a ruler).

### Estimate lengths

### Video:

Your child will estimate lengths in units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. Before actually measuring items, have your child estimate how long the item is before measuring and then compare the estimation to actual length. You will soon see your child become experts at estimating!

### Use the number line to represent addition and subtraction

**Video:37+_=63**

Number lines will be drawn by your child to help them add, subtract, or compare two numbers. Keep in mind that all number lines will not begin at zero and your child may skip count on the number lines by 10, 20 or more!

### Solve word problems involving money, using $ and ¢ symbols

#### Video: Change for 76 Cents

The grocery store is a great opportunity to practice these skills using various scenarios on what you want to buy. When paying in cash at any establishment, let your child pay and receive the change asking the cashier to count the change back to your child or having your child tell the cashier how much should be given for change.