history of The negro travelers' green book
Car ownership in American expanded exponentially after World War II, however if you were African American it was dangerous to travel outside of your own predominantly black neighborhoods. With the "Whites Only" rules and standards of the day and "Sundown Town" which were towns that had rules stipulating that black people had to be outside of the town boundaries by sunset, made intrastate and interstate travel for car owning black Americans risky, locating places to eat while on the road dangerous and securing appropriate overnight accomodations life threatening.
Victor Hugo Green, a postal carrier from Harlem, New York developed The Negro Travelers' Green Book, a travel guide designed to provide safe travel locations through the U.S. specifically for black Americans. The first publication of The Green Book, as it became known as, only covered hotels and restaurants within the state of New York, however by the 1950's the publication had grown to include hotels, restaurants, gas stations, and stores throughout the U.S thanks to information gathered from other postal carriers and other black travelers.
The Green Book continued to grow in popularity and necessity selling 15,000 per year and expanding its travel locations to include international attractions such as Mexico, Europe, Canada, and the Caribbean.
After 30 years, the Green Book's last publication was in 1966, two years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 made it illegal to discriminate due to a person's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Information from history.com
Arizona's Green Book History
Swindall Tourist Inn in Phoenix AZ Arizona Green Book Entry 1948
In the 1948 edition of the Negro Travelers' Green Book, three Arizonas cities Douglas, Nogales, and Phoenix, were featured for facilities that offered safe travel services to African American travelers. At that time in Phoenix there were only four locations listed in the Green Book where weary black travelers could stay, however only one of those four locations remains standing today, the Swindall Tourist Inn.
Constructed as a family residence in 1914, the home was built by the five sons of the initial owner, Mrs. Matilda Steyart. In 1920 Mrs. Steyart, a widow, housed boarders and accepted African American travelers as a means of support for herself and her family. Golden and Elvira Swindall purchased the residence in 1940 and decided to carry on the legacy of Mrs. Steyart by continuing to house wear black travelers. The Swindall's expanded the home's second floor, constructing additional bedrooms and building a carport to the rear of the home. The Swindall Tourist Inn continued to accept black visitors Phoenix until the passing of Elvira Swindall in January of 1990 (Golden Swindall passed in July of 1989).
With no owners, the abandoned inn fell into despair until it was purchased and repaired by the Desert Mashie Golf Club, who currently use the facility as an office space.
Information from the US Dept. of the Interior National Park Service
ORGINS OF BLACK HISTORY MONTH
Carter G. Woodson
Minster Jesse E. Mooreland
Black History Month is a time to recognize the numerous achievements of African Americans and thier imperative roles within the history of the United States of America.
In 1915 Carter G. Woodson and Min. Jesse E. Mooreland founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH). The ASNLH was an organization focused on researching and promoting the achievements of Black Americans and people of African descent.
In February 1926, Woodson and the ASNLH created "Negro History Week." Woodson selected the month of February to celebrate Negro History Week because it is the birthday month of two men he admired most, Fredrick Douglas and President Abraham Lincoln. Negro History Week was meant for schools and community organizations nationwide to hold celebrations, host presentations, lectures, and preformances featuring the accomplishments of Black Americans and people of African descent.
Negro History Week was intended to be a one-time event. Woodson anticipated that once America was made aware of the significant contributions Blacks and other people of African descent have made to America, black history would become embedded into the teaching and recognition of American history since Black Americans were American. Woodson's assumption has yet to occur. Over time Negro History Week morphed into Black History Month, partically due to the civil rights movement of the late 1960s and the black identity awareness movement that hit college campuses in the 1970s.
President Gerald Ford offically recognized Black History Month in February 1976. Every American president since has continued to recognize the month of February as Black History Month and has added a specific theme for the month each year.
The theme for Black Histoy Month 2022 is "Black Health and Wellness."
BLACK HISTORY MONTH SPOTLIGHT
Elgie M. Batteau
Elgie Batteau was the first African American woman to graduate from the University of Arizona with a masters degree in education. Born January 24, 1905, in the small farming town of Victoria, Texas, Mrs. Batteau excelled as a student receiving her undergraduate education at Paul Quinn College in Waco, Texas (a private, faith-based liberal arts college now located in Dallas) before moving to Tucson, Arizona in 1932.
In a 1991 interview with Nathan Gammage for the AZ Historical Society, Mrs. Batteau recalled facing several instances of racism while on the campus of the University of Arizona in the 1930s. From being charged five dollars for a fifty-cent cola by a racist soda fountain attendant to dealing with an university instructor who refused to award her the higher grade, she earned becasue the instructed did not believe in giving black students high grades; Mrs. Batteau was admitted to the university, but had to deal with the exclusionary practices of that time solely because of her race, and yet Mrs. Batteau prevailed.
Upon graduating in 1933, Mrs. Batteau applied for a teaching position within Tucson School District 1, landing an interview with the Superintendent of Schools of the time, Mr. C.E. Rose. Mrs. Batteau was unable to teach freely within the district as she had hoped, being told that becasue she was black, she could only teach at one school, Dunbar Junior High School. So, in 1934 Mrs. Batteau began what would become an illustious career in education at Dunbar Junior High School, a segregated schol in Tucson (1913-1952) that taught students in grades first through ninth.
Teaching not only in Tucson but also in Phoenix, Mrs. Batteau also taught at Phoenix Union Colored High School having a significant role in changing that school's name to George Washington Carver High School. Mrs. Batteau continued to break barriers in education, becoming the first black person to serve on the Pima Community College Governing Board.
In 2012, to honor the history of its namesake's legacy of excellence and achievement, the Elgie M. Batteau Honor Society was established on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson. Established by Dr. Charles Davis III, Houston Harris, & Gabe Matthews, the Elgie M. Batteau Honor Society recognizes high achieveing African American students through encouraging academic success, professional development, and community engagement.
My name is Chenita M. Dix Young, and I am the Program Specialist for the Equity, Diversity & Inclusion Division (EDI). As the EDI Program Specialist, it is my responsibility to work with program areas across EDI providing guidance and support to both internal and external stakeholders ensuring the implementation of the Equity Framework within the division's policies, procedures, programs, and practices.
I grew up in the Valley having graduated from Tempe High School (Go Buffs!). I received my undergraduate degree from the University of Arizona (Go Wildcats!) and a master’s degree in Business Administration from the University of Phoenix. I have worked in the field of social work for over 30 years, coming to ADE in 2020 from the non-profit sector. I have a motto that has guided me throughout my professional career and has never steered me wrong, that is Help is never supposed to hurt.
I am many things to many people. I am a loving wife to my husband Brandon, a devoted daughter to my father Clay, a very pampered, yet supportive, princess in my male-dominated family, and a fun & caring friend to my crew. I believe in taking as many breaks as possible to disconnect and enjoy life. In doing so when I want to rejuvenate and relax, I enjoy reading, going to brunch, traveling, and spending time with my family and close friends.
Grant Information and Updates
American Rescue Plan Homeless II
The ARP-Homeless II Application FY22 is currently open. Please submit your application as soon as possible.
ARP Homeless II Application has been extended till May 1, 2022. A 30-minute webinar that reviews the application for ARP Homeless II can be found on the ADE Homeless Professional Development website. Additional funding information for ARP Homeless I and ARP Homeless II grants can be found on the ADE Homeless Funding website.
Please reach out to Silvia Chavez, State Coordinator for Homeless Education Program, for assistance.
The Living Languages Grant Program
Language Grant - Accepting Proposals.
The Living Languages Grant Program (LLGP), a program dedicated to helping tribes preserve their Native languages is accepting proposals until March 7, 2022 The funding will focus on small or start-up programs whose objective is to document or build the capacity to preserve Native languages that are losing users, but which still have active users at the grandparent generation.
Migrant Education Program
FY21 MEP Cycle Monitoring for MEP Projects
- Please be on the lookout for notification letters in the coming months for more information on training and documents that are required for each cycle.
- Please reach out to Lea Bryant, Grants and Family Engagement Specialist, for assistance.
- Casa Grande Union School District
- Buckeye Union High School District
- Chandler Unified School District
- Stanfield Elementary School District
- Yuma Elementary School District
- Douglas Unified School District
- Portable Practical Educational Preparation (PPEP) Charter School
- Queen Creek Unified School District
- Arlington Elementary School District
- Coolidge Unified School District
- Crane Elementary School District
- Mesa Unified School District
- Palo Verde Elementary School District
- Saddle Mountain Elementary School District
- Aguila Elementary School District
- Avondale Elementary School District
- Gadsden Elementary School District
- J.O. Combs Elementary School District
- Marana Unified School District
- Somerton Elementary School District
- Willcox Unified School District
- Yuma Union High School District
Title III Grant Tip for February: The Title III Grants Review Team welcomes your revisions! Please remember the importance of revisiting and revising your LIAP and Title III grant throughout the project period. This helps ensure your LEA is on track with meeting its identified needs or discovering new ones as shifts and changes happen during the school year. It also creates an accurate picture of actual grant spending so adjustments can be made well in advance of closing out a project.
Maricopa Education Collaboration
- This meeting will provide a great opportunity to further bolster the collaborative relationships between LEAs, child welfare agencies, and foster care non-profit organizations within Maricopa County to facilitate the implementation.
February 10, 2022
2:00 - 3:00 PM
Meeting ID: 915 5615 1053 PW: 879 807
Pima County Education Work Group
- This meeting will provide a great opportunity to further bolster the collaborative relationships between LEAs, child welfare agencies, and foster care non-profit organizations within Pima County/Southern Arizona to facilitate the implementation of the educational rights of students in foster care.
February 14, 2022
9:30 – 10:30 AM
Meeting ID: 922 6060 6967 PW: Ht4Prf9l
Foster Care Education: Transportation
- This professional development opportunity will enable participants to fully support students in foster care and competently ensure students in foster care will receive transportation to their school of origin. Transportation to the school of origin is a shared responsibility between the LEA and the child welfare agency. Collaboration between the school of origin and the child welfare agency, BIDs, and all the varied cost-effective/timely transportation options will be explored during this training.
February 15, 2022
10:00 – 11:30 AM
Zoom Registration Link
Foster Care Education: Best Interest Determinations
- This professional development opportunity will enable participants to fully support students in foster care & ensure their educational rights are upheld. More specifically, the best interest determination process will be fully explored to assist LEA foster care points of contact & child welfare agency staff in assessing whether students in foster care will remain in their school of origin or be immediately enrolled in the new school.
February 16, 2022
1:00 – 2:30 PM
Zoom Registration Link
Next Chapter Symposium: Resources to Support Youth Aging-Out of Foster Care
- The Arizona Department of Education, Arizona Department of Child Safety, First Star ASU, CASA of Arizona, ASU Bridging Success, and Voices for CASA Children are proud to invite you to attend the annual Next Chapter Symposium: Resources to Support Youth Aging-Out of Foster Care. When youth age out of the foster care system they can face numerous challenges. This cross-governmental, organizational, and educational partnership aims to serve not only the youth aging out of foster care but those that support them as well. This two-day event will include breakout sessions pertaining to educational paths, scholarship opportunities, career options, information on dually adjudicated youth, AHCCCS, medical care, drug prevention education, transitional housing, and more! Participants that attend both days will receive a total of six hours of continuing education units.
February 25-26, 2022
9:00 AM – 12:00 PM
Click for flyer
Think Tank Session
- This session will help problem solve situations that may arise for LEAs and utilize peer support.
February 9. 2022
2:00 – 3:00 PM
Join Meeting Link
ARP Homeless Grant Questions Office Hour
- On the 4th Wednesday of the month, our grants specialist will be available online to answer questions you may have about any of the ARP (American Rescue Plan- Homeless Children and Youth) grants.
February 23, 2022
8:30 – 9:30 AM
Join Meeting Link
- February is the start of our Migrant Education Program Desktop Monitoring. Notifications will be sent out notifying Projects of monitoring training and submission dates within the next few weeks.
- If you have any questions or concerns, please email the MEP Team at [email protected].
2022 Migrant Education Program (MEP) Workshop
- This workshop, intended for MEP grant writers, coordinators, recruiters, and other support staff, will introduce resources that will support the planning and completion of the new MEP grant application. This will be a two-part series with Consortium Leads and Projects to attend February 22nd and all individual projects that are not in a Consortium to attend February 24th. Prior to participating in the 2022 MEP Workshop, please click here to review and download MEP-related documents, as we will be referencing them throughout the event.
Tuesday, February 22
Who: Consortia Members
Time: 8:30 AM - 4:00 PM
Register: If you are a Consortia member, please click here to register.
Thursday, February 24
Who: Individual MEP Project Members
Time: 8:30 AM - 4:00 PM
Register: If you are an Individual Project member, please click here to register
For more information, please reach out to Zujaila Ornelas, Migrant Education Coordinator
- February is the start of our Virtual and On-site EL Program Monitoring. Notifications have been sent out notifying LEAs of monitoring training, submission dates, and schedules for on-site monitoring.
- If you have any questions or concerns, please contact OELAS at [email protected] or (602)542-0753.
Dine Institute Accepting Applications
The Diné Institute for Navajo Nation Educators (DINÉ) is a partnership between Northern Arizona University and schools on the Navajo Nation who are participating in the Yale National Initiative. The Institute provides innovative K-12 teacher professional development that elevates curricular rigor and strengthens culturally responsive teaching in public, BIE, and tribally-controlled schools across the Diné Nation.
Applications due February 7, 2022
Dine Institute Web Site
Policy & Program Updates for Indigenous Stakeholders
- On the third Monday of each month, the Office of Indian Education holds a Policy & Program Updates for Indigenous Stakeholders gathering. These monthly gatherings are aimed at providing rich information and highlights from ADE programs, state legislative updates, and other federal and state policy information that support your efforts across education. We welcome your input for future content and your feedback for areas we can continue to grow. For questions, please reach out to Sahmie Wytewa, Policy Specialist-Tribal Liaison at (928) 637-1867 or [email protected].
February 28, 2022
10:00 -11:00 AM
OIE Annual Summit and Gathering
- OIE has begun planning a summit for Indigenous stakeholders, further details about the event will be posted on our website. To sign up for emails from the Office of Indian Education click here
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